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译:OwenNiu 校对协助:kurenoyukikaze
文中部分术语没有采用常用翻译,但首次出现时会标注英文原文。
注意文中所有“现在”、“当前”等均指本文写作时的1978年。
本系列就此完结。在我认为收集够纠错反馈后,会发布新的pdf版。如果感兴趣可以关注舰娘百科的微博,pdf版的地址会在那里发布。
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鱼雷Mk 38 Mod 0

开发日期:延期
大致服役时期:从未服役
鱼雷Mk 38是计划中的二战后反水面舰艇、潜艇发射的声学制导鱼雷的代号,旨在取代Mk 28鱼雷。该开发工作是否进行需要视Mk 37的开发和评估状况决定。随着Mk 37的成功,Mk 38的开发和后续评估计划也被终止。

鱼雷Mk 39 Mod 1

开发日期:1946
大致服役时期:1946-1956
由马里兰州银泉市的维特罗公司和宾夕法尼亚州立大学的军械研究实验室共同开发的Mk 39 Mod 1型鱼雷,是第一批使用拖曳线通过潜艇火控系统进行中程制导(mid-course guidance)的鱼雷。
这种鱼雷实际上是宾夕法尼亚州费城的菲力科公司改装的鱼雷Mk 27 Mod 4,用于发展有线制导并使舰队熟悉有线制导。导线引导功能最终并入了为舰队使用而发行的鱼雷Mk 37 Mod 1和Mk 45。由于在其他鱼雷中加入了有线引导装置,因此Mk 39潜射反潜鱼雷被认为已经过时并被报废。

鱼雷Mk 40测试机

开发日期:1946
大致服役时期:从未服役
鱼雷Mk 40是拟议中的1000磅,飞机或制导导弹发射的反水面鱼雷的代号,该鱼雷带有液压涡轮喷射或水泵喷射推进系统(hydro-turbo jet or pump jet propulsion system)。该项目的工作证实了德国的演示,即可以使用多基固体推进剂在适合所需应用的压力和温度下短时间内供应气体。由加利福尼亚州帕萨迪纳市海军军械测试站开发的Mk 40由于技术局限性以及由于海军飞机作为反潜平台而不是作为进攻鱼雷平台的转变而停产。

鱼雷Mk 41 Mods 0

开发日期:1949
大致服役时期:从未服役
Mk 41 Mod 0鱼雷由马萨诸塞州匹兹菲尔德市的通用电气公司开发,是Mk 35鱼雷的飞机发射反潜版,Mk 41 Mod 0鱼雷使用了与Mk 35相同的制导系统和相同类型的推进力。Mk 35和Mk 41之间的区别在于,Mk 41消除了飞机发射所不需要的功能。Mk41也做得尽可能紧凑。GE生产了大约200颗用于评估,但由于Mk 43型鱼雷而停止生产。

鱼雷Mk42

开发日期:1949
大致服役时期:从未服役
Mk 42鱼雷原本计划中是潜艇发射的、模式运行的反水面舰艇鱼雷,试图将过去在开发各种鱼雷组件方面的经验整合为一种武器。加利福尼亚帕萨迪纳的海军军械测试站、华盛顿特区海军军械实验室、罗德岛州纽波特市的海军鱼雷站、宾夕法尼亚州立大学军械研究实验室、新泽西州霍博肯的史蒂文斯理工学院为该项目做出了贡献。Mk 42的开发于1952年终止,转而开发Mk 16的一个能以模式运行的mod。

鱼雷Mk 43 Mod 0

开发日期:1950
大致服役时期:1951-1957
鱼雷Mk 43 Mod 0是飞机发射的反潜鱼雷。它是由马萨诸塞州匹兹菲尔德市的通用电气公司开发和生产的,目的是为固定翼和直升飞机以及飞艇提供用于反潜的轻便、廉价的鱼雷。约有500颗为评估目而制造,但由于鱼雷……(译注:原文此处缺失型号)而停产。

鱼雷Mk 43

开发日期:1950
大致服役时期:1951-1957
第二次世界大战后,鱼雷Mk 43 Mod 1和3由俄亥俄州克利夫兰的布拉什公司和加利福尼亚州帕萨迪纳的海军军械试验站开发。
这是第一架能够由直升机、固定翼飞机、和水面舰艇发射的轻型反潜鱼雷。从1951年到1959年,俄亥俄州克利夫兰的布拉什电子公司和伊利诺伊州森林公园的海军军械厂生产了大约5000颗。在Mk 44鱼雷服役后,该鱼雷从舰队中退役。

鱼雷Mk 44

开发日期:1953
大致服役时期:1957-1967
鱼雷Mk 44是第二代轻型反潜鱼雷,也是第一批以海水活化电池作为动力的鱼雷。该鱼雷是Mk 43的替代品,在速度,战斗部尺寸,声学寻的能力和发射前可选择的搜索参数方面都有改进。Mk 44是由加利福尼亚州帕萨迪纳市的海军军械测试站和马萨诸塞州匹兹菲尔德市通用电气公司的航空和军械系统部门开发的。
1957年在GE开始生产,随后几年在海军位于伊利诺伊州福里斯特帕克的海军军械厂以及位于纽约州布法罗的美国机械铸造公司的Mk 44作为反潜武器在美国驱逐舰和飞机上服役了约十年,直到被Mk 46取代。

鱼雷Mk 45

开发日期:1957
大致服役时期:1958-1976
鱼雷Mk 45是潜艇发射的反潜、反水面舰艇鱼雷,具有有线制导能力和核弹头。鱼雷使用海水活化电池作为动力源,高速、射程远、深度深。Mk 45鱼雷由华盛顿大学西雅图分校的应用研究实验室和马里兰州巴尔的摩的西屋电气公司共同开发,Mk 45鱼雷由西屋公司于1959年开始生产。这种鱼雷仅限于美国海军使用,Mk 48问世后退役。

鱼雷Mk 46

开发日期:1960
大致服役时期:1963 至今
Mk 46鱼雷是第三代轻型反潜武器,由加利福尼亚州帕萨迪纳的海军军械试验站和加利福尼亚阿祖萨的喷气通用公司开发。它由热活塞发动机提供动力,与以前的产品相比,具有更高的速度,更长的行程,更好的声学性能以及更深的深度操作。Torpedo Mk 46 Mod 0使用固体推进剂颗粒(solid propellant grain),而Mod 1使用液体单推进剂燃料(liquid monopropellant fuel)。Mod1在速度和射程方面的性能更好。
Mk 46于1963年在喷气通用公司投入生产,并在随后的两年内开始生产Mk 46鱼雷目前在美国海军驱逐舰和飞机上服役,并已根据军事援助计划销往外国政府。Mk46鱼雷将在美国海军驱逐舰和飞机上服役,直到下一代轻型反潜鱼雷问世。

鱼雷Mk 47

开发日期:1970
大致服役时期:从未服役
鱼雷Mk 47被赋予拟议的水下发射的高速反水面鱼雷的称号。这枚鱼雷既要有热动力,也要有电动力。由于鱼雷……(译注:原文此处缺失编号)的状态,在完全定义Mk 47的特性之前,开发计划被终止。

鱼雷Mk 48 Mod 1

开发日期:1965
大致服役时期:1971 至今
鱼雷Mk 48是一种高速、射程远、深度深、有线制导的声学寻的制导武器,用于检测和攻击水面舰艇和快速、深潜的潜艇。鱼雷Mk 48 Mod 0的开发源自1963年海军内部的研究型鱼雷配置计划。该计划由宾夕法尼亚州立大学应用研究实验室和马里兰州巴尔的摩的西屋电气公司(总承包商)开发。此模块采用了涡轮推进系统。
此开发的最终产品被重新命名为Mk 48 Mod2。1967年,俄亥俄州克利夫兰的古尔德公司(Gould, Inc.)(总承包商)和马里兰州白橡树的海军水面作战中心开始研发Mk 48 Mod 1。该版本具有经过实质性重新设计的声学归位系统,并且使用活塞发动机进行推进。评估了Mod 1和Mod 2后,海军选择了Mod 1在古尔德公司进行生产,并配备于舰队。

ASROC导弹

开发日期:1956
大致服役时期:1962 至今
ASROC导弹是一种固体燃料、火箭推进弹道导弹,设计用于水面舰艇远距离攻击水下潜艇。导弹有两种基本配置:(1)以声导鱼雷作为有效载荷的火箭投掷鱼雷;(2)火箭投掷的深水炸弹。在鱼雷配置中,导弹部件在飞行中与鱼雷分开,然后鱼雷进入水,如同从飞机上发射时一样工作。ASROC导弹可在美国海军的巡洋舰,驱逐舰和护卫舰上使用。
该导弹是由加利福尼亚州帕萨迪纳市的海军军械试验站和明尼苏达州霍普金斯市明尼阿波利斯霍尼韦尔调节器公司共同开发的。由于ASROC的每个组件分开生产生产,因此有许多制造商。这些组件在每次进行海军行动时才会组装成导弹。

引用资料

1. V. Albers, Passive Acoustic Torpedoes, (U), ORL Report 7958-128, Ordnance Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, 1 March 1949 (SECRET).
2. "Evolution of the Torpedo: Newport Torpedo Station's Role in the Development of the U.S. Navy Torpedoes," vol. VI, Torpedo Station Publication, Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R. I., 1946 (UNCLASSIFIED).
3. "Notes on Movable Torpedoes," U.S. Navy Publication, 1873 (UNCLASSIFIED).
4. Bucknell, J. T., "Submarine Mines and Torpedoes," Engineering, London, 1889 (UNCLASSIFIED).
5. "Principles and Application of Underwater Sound," NAVMAT P-9674, Naval Material Command, Washington, D. C., 1968 (UNCLASSIFIED).

参考资料

Armstrong, G. E., Torpedoes and Torpedo Vessels, Bill & Sons, London, 1896 (UNCLASSIFIED).
Beggs, J. M., and T. H. Campbell, Jr., "Underseas Missiles at Westinghouse," Missiles and Rockets (UNCLASSIFIED).
Beloshitskiy, V. P., and Y. M. Baguisky, Underwater Weapons, Military Publishing House, Moscow, 1960 (UNCLASSIFIED).
Bethell, P., "Development of the Torpedo," Engineering, London, 1945-1946 (UNCLASSIFIED).
Blair, C., Jr., Silent Victory, Lippincott & Co., New York, 1975 (UNCLASSIFIED).
Bliss-Leavitt 5.2 m x 45 cm Torpedo Mk VII and U.S. Navy Torpedo 12 ft x 45 cm Type D, OP 436, Bureau of Ordnance, Washington, D. C., January 1914 (UNCLASSIFIED).
Bradford, R. B., "History of Torpedo Warfare," Torpedo Station Publication, Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R. I., 1882 (UNCLASSIFIED).
Bureau of Ordnance Demonstration of Phase A Rocket-Assisted Torpedo, (U), NAVORD Report 4979, Naval Ordnance Torpedo Station, Pasadena, Calif., 2 September 1955 (CONFIDENTIAL).
Cavanaugh, C. C., The Evolution of the U.S. Navy Torpedo Exploder Mechanism, (U), Torpedo Station Consecutive Report 62, Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R. I., 7 March 1946 (CONFIDENTIAL).
"Chronological Record 1869-1945," vol. I, Torpedo Station Publication, Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R. I., 1946 (UNCLASSIFIED).
Coggeshall, W. J., and J. E. McCarthy, "History of the Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R. I. (1858-1925)," Torpedo Station Publication, Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R. I., circa 1925 (UNCLASSIFIED).
Destroyers in the United States Navy, Naval History Division, Washington, D. C., Government Printing Office, 1962 (UNCLASSIFIED).
Ellis, W. A. "Torpedoes," A List of References in the New York Public Library, circa 1917 (UNCLASSIFIED).
Evaluation of the Petrel Missile, (U), Final Report on Project OP/V181/X11, Commander Operational Development Force, 23 April 1956 (SECRET).
Final Report on the Development of the Torpedo Mk 42, (U), NAVORD Report 2050, Naval Ordnance Torpedo Station, Pasadena, Calif., 17 August 1943 (CONFIDENTIAL).
Gray, E., The Devil's Device, Seeley, Service, and Co. Ltd., London, 1975 (UNCLASSIFIED).
Howell Torpedo, Honeywell, Inc., circa 1972 (UNCLASSIFIED).
Inventory Notes, Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R. I., 17 July 1913 (UNCLASSIFIED).
Kiby, G. J., "History of the Torpedo," Journal of the Royal Scientific Service, circa 1973 (UNCLASSIFIED).
Maxwell, F. H., "Torpedo Propulsion Systems," Journal of American Rocket Society, December 1949 (UNCLASSIFIED).
Miklowitz, G. D., "Physical and Operational Characteristics of Torpedoes Mk 13 Through Mk 43X," (U), NOTS Technical Memorandum 571, Naval Ordnance Torpedo Station, Pasadena, Calif., 1 October 1951 (SECRET).
Morison, S. E., Two-Ocean War, Ballantine Books, Inc., New York, 1972 (UNCLASSIFIED).
Mueser, R. E., "Tabulation and Description of 84 American and Foreign Torpedoes," (U), ORL Technical Note 9.0000-12, Ordnance Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, 7 October 1947 (SECRET).
"New Designation for Torpedoes," BuOrd Document 21622-(G)-6/28 (revision of Ordnance Pamphlet No. 316), Bureau of Ordnance, Washington, D. C., 18 June 1913 (UNCLASSIFIED).
"The Newport Torpedo Station's Role in the Development of U.S. Navy Torpedoes, Electric - Chemical - Aircraft Torpedoes; Exploders," vol. VII, Torpedo Station Publication, Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R. I., 1946 (UNCLASSIFIED).
Norlin, F. E., Evolution of the Torpedo, Torpedo Station Consecutive Report 99, Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R. I., 30 September 1946 (UNCLASSIFIED).
Pawlowski, G. L., Flattops and Fledglings, Cusette Books, New York, 1971 (UNCLASSIFIED).
"Plates of Whitehead Torpedoes, Torpedo Directors, and Above-Water Launching Apparatus," Torpedo Station Publication, Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R. I., 1901 (UNCLASSIFIED).
Preston, A., Submarines, Octopus Books, Ltd., London, 1975 (UNCLASSIFIED).
Report of the Bureau of Ordnance Committee on Torpedo Research and Development, (U), NAVORD Report 1760, part II, sec. 8, Naval Ordnance Systems Command, Washington, D. C., 29 December 1950 (CONFIDENTIAL).
Report on Technical Phase of BuWeps/Optevfor Concurrent Evaluation of ASROC Weapon System, (U), NAVWEPS Report 7595, NOTS T2585, Naval Ordnance Torpedo Station, Pasadena, Calif., 21 November 1960 (CONFIDENTIAL).
Roscoe, T., On the Sea and in the Skies, Hawthorne Books, Inc., New York, 1970 (UNCLASSIFIED).
Rowland, B., and W.B. Boyd, U.S. Navy Bureau of Ordnance in World War II, Washington, D.C. Government Printing Office, 1953 (UNCLASSIFIED).
Sleeman, C. W., Torpedoes and Torpedo Warfare, Griffin & Co., Portsmouth, England, 1880 (UNCLASSIFIED).
Sleeman, C. W., Torpedoes and Torpedo Warfare, Griffin & Co., Portsmouth, England, 1889 (UNCLASSIFIED).
Stockard, J. M., "Torpedo Scrap Book," Bureau of Ordnance, Washington, D. C., circa 1910 (UNCLASSIFIED).
"Summary Report on the Present and Probable Development of Torpedoes," Prepared by the Torpedo Survey Panel of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, under assignment to the Navy Department, NAVEYOS P-416, Government Printing Office, 1946 (UNCLASSIFIED).
Surface-Borne, Thrown Torpedo Anti-Submarine Weapon, (U), Evaluation and Analysis Staff Report 165, Bureau of Ordnance, Washington, D. C., 23 November 1953 (CONFIDENTIAL).
"Swedish Torpedo, 100 Years, 1876-1976," (Torpedem 100 ar 1976), Royal Swedish Navy, 1976 (UNCLASSIFIED).
Thrown Torpedo Program Technical Progress Report Summary to 30 April 1954, (U), NOTS Report 60, Naval Ordnance Torpedo Station, Pasadena, Calif., 1954 (CONFIDENTIAL).
Torpedo and Mine Warhead Characteristics, OD 3823, Second Revision, Naval Ordnance Systems Command, Washington, D. C., 19 March 1951 (UNCLASSIFIED).
Torpedo Mk VIII Mods 4 and 5, OP 321, Bureau of Ordnance, Washington, D. C., circa 1913 (UNCLASSIFIED).
Torpedo Mk 18, OP 436, Bureau of Ordnance, Washington, D. C., circa 1943 (UNCLASSIFIED).
Torpedo Register Number Assignment Records, Naval Underwater Systems Center, Newport, R. I., 1978 (UNCLASSIFIED).
"Torpedoes - United States Navy," Ordnance Pamphlet 320, Bureau of Ordnance, Washington, D. C., Government Printing Office, October 1915 (UNCLASSIFIED).
"Undersea Thunder," General Electric Review, General Electric Corp., March, May 1958 (UNCLASSIFIED).
"Underwater Ordnance Data Book, (U)," (U), Naval Underwater Ordnance Station, Newport, R. I., 1960 (SECRET).
U.S. Navy Torpedo General Data, OP 1604, Bureau of Ordnance, Washington, D. C., 15 October 1945 (UNCLASSIFIED).
U.S. Navy Underwater Weapons Operational Characteristics and Tactical Data, (U), OD 16086, Naval Underwater Systems Center, Newport, R. I., 1 January 1973 (CONFIDENTIAL).
Watts, A. J., Allied Submarines, ARCO Publishing Co., Inc., New York, 1977 (UNCLASSIFIED).
"Whitehead Torpedo, U.S.N., 3.55 m x 45 cm Mk I, Mk II, Mk III, and 5 m x 45 cm Mk I, Mk II," Torpedo Station Publication, Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R. I., 1901 (UNCLASSIFIED).

附录A 大事件时间表

(译注:太长了,如果感兴趣请移步看原文。)

附录B 名称表

本报告中提及的组织名称均为当时的。海军设施和工业组织都发生了很多变化。下表中罗列出了各组织当时和现在的名称。除非与本报告有关,否则不列出中间改过的其他名称。

本报告首批分发列表

(译注:太长了,如果感兴趣请移步看原文。)
*美国政府印刷办公室:1978 - A-1093/219

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